Article in PharmacoEconomics
Owen Johnson, Director of X-Lab and Senior Fellow at the University of Leeds, has published an article for the PharmacoEconomics Journal. The article describes how NETIMIS can be utilised to generate ideas and evaluate healthcare scenarios.
The purpose of this white paper is to provide information to healthcare professionals about the value of simulation with NETIMIS in existing healthcare processes. In healthcare practice, NETIMIS can be used as a strategic tool in determining health outcome and analysing the economics of existing and future healthcare pathways. This project was funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board and developed by X-Lab Ltd. as a research project, working with various healthcare and research professionals and industry leaders.
The white paper covers the challenges in management of sepsis and the role of simulation modelling in healthcare. The report then outlines the NETIMIS tool development methodologies and application of the tool in different healthcare scenarios, to offer a solution to existing problems.
Case Study One
Analysing the impact of Point of Care Testing (POCT) devices by modelling patient pathways in sepsis
Sepsis is a medical emergency and a hidden killer. Undiagnosed and mismanaged patients with sepsis may quickly progress into a severe sepsis condition which is commonly associated with reduced blood supply to tissues and may cause organ failure. Early diagnosis of sepsis and early administration of therapies is crucial to save lives and improve patient outcomes. Patients suffering from sepsis often seek medical attention relatively late after onset of the disease. This case study reflects the use of NETIMIS as a simulation modelling tool to analyse the impact of point of care testing (POCT) devices on sepsis pathways.
Case study two
Improving the delivery of attendance of Accident and Emergency department for sepsis
Based on a field work in Accident and Emergency (A&E) department of Leeds General Infirmary (LGI), it was found out that the department deals with an average of 320 admissions per day. Patients with severe sepsis and with septic shock require admission specifically to an intensive care unit (ICU). However, from the pathway analysis it was identified that if sepsis is detected early and has not yet affected vital organs, it may be possible to treat the infection at home with antibiotics. NETIMIS is used to model how a new point of care testing device may increase control and visibility of workflow processes in A&E and help early detection of sepsis.
The benefits identified from the new NETIMIS model are:
• Better patient outcome.
• Reduction of number of deaths due to sepsis.
• Reduction of overall cost by 30%.
• Improvement in the quality of service in A&E department.
• Reduction of workload on clinical staff.
• Increase capacity/patient flow in A&E department.
Case study three
Using NETIMIS to model how point of care testing (POCT) devices can avoid pneumonia related sepsis in patients suffering from Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)
Each year, the risk of Community Acquire Pneumonia (CAP) is rising because of several reasons such as changes in demographics, existence of co-morbidity illnesses and cross infection due to significant use of residential and care homes. In the community, the diagnosis of CAP is based primarily on clinical signs and symptoms of the patients. Based on published evidence and literature, a model to represent the patient flow from primary to secondary care was constructed and simulated using NETIMIS. The simulated model was, used to describe the probability of patient flow between primary care and secondary care, and analysed the associated costs of various healthcare activities. This model allowed identification of possible POCT places and formed the base of a new model. The new NETIMIS model illustrates how patient load in critical care can be reduced by introducing a POCT in the existing pathways; ultimately achieving potential economic and operational savings.